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Endourology is branch of urological surgery that includes closed techniques for visualizing or manipulating the urinary tract to determine whether there is any obstruction or cancer in it or not. This technique is also useful for the treatment, evaluation and prevention of kidney stones.

Endourology is mainly done with the help instruments. In order to perform surgery to remove the stones from the kidney, thin and flexible instruments such as lasers, graspers, miniature stone retrieval baskets, special scalpels, and cautery, can be advanced through working channels in the scopes without creating any incisions at all. In most of the endoscopic procedures, patient can leave the hospital on the very same day.

Endourology includes Cystoscopy, Pelviscopy or celioscopy or laparoscopy, Percutaneous or ureteroscopy, Uretheroscopy, Nephroscopy. These are all genitourinary operative procedures (diagnostic and therapeutic).

Cystoscopy : Cystoscopy is a procedure used to look inside the urinary bladder and the urethra. It is used to treat bladder stones and tumors. Local anesthesia is generally used in case of diagnostic cystoscopy. But in case of operative cystoscopy techinques, general anesthesia is used. Cystoscopy is performed with an instrument known a cystoscope. It has lenses like that of telescope or microscope which enables the doctor to see the inner surface of the urinary tract. Some cystoscope also uses the optical fibers. Cystoscopy can be divided into two types rigid and flexible depending on the flexibility of the cystocopy. Both on the male and female, flexible cystoscopy is carried out using local anaesthesia whereas in case of rigid cystocopy general anesthesia is used on male to reduce the pain.

Pelviscopy : Pelviscopy is a surgical techniques used for diagnosis and treatment of the pelvic organs with the help of laparoscope, an instrument that looks like small telescope on a flexible tube. In this procedure doctors inserted the laparoscope inside the abdomen at the navel. This procedure is carried out to diagnose on the female patients having the appendicitis or salpingitis. It is also used to evaluate infertility. Pelviscopy is mainly used to treat Ectopic pregnancies, Ovarian cyst, Tumors , Endometriosis and Pelvic adhesions.

Percutaneous or ureteroscopy : This is a technique used to examine the upper urinary tract, usually performed with a flexible or rigid fiber optic device known as the Ureteroscope. This device looks like a long and thin telescope. This procedure is used to treat the stones and the tumors of the ureter. It is also useful in treating kidney stones. In this procedure, at first patient receives general anesthesia. Than the ureteroscope is passed through the urethra, bladder and than finally to the ureter to visualize the tube.

Uretheroscopy : A uretheroscopy is a diagnostic procedure that investigates the urinary system with the help of a special telescope. It is carried out to treat strictures or blockages of the urethra. In this technique the patient receives local anesthesia in the form of anesthetic jelly which is flushed down to the urethra. After than a narrow tube is passed through the pennis or vagina and into the bladder. To examine the bladder, biopsies and for the treatment, a telescope and various instruments are pass down through this tube inside the body. After the uretheroscopy, all the instruments and the telescopes are taken out and in place of them a catheter is insert inside the bladder to help it drain. Catheter remains there until the patient 's urine is clear.

Nephroscopy : This is a technique used to visualize the inside of the kidney by means of nephroscope. This technique helps in the treatment of stones and tumors of the kidney lining. Neproscope which is used in this technique is made of a light source in a tube and have three channels for telescopes, fibre optic light input and irrigation. In this procedure, at first the instrument is inserted into the kidney to locate the stones through an incision in the renal pelvis. After than the stones are broken up with high frequency sound waves and removed by suction through the scope.